Blockchain Tech Predictions for 2024, From Experts at Ripple, Coinbase, a16z, Starknet

Blockchain Technology Predictions

In this article, we will explore expert predictions for the future of blockchain technology in 2024. These predictions come from industry giants such as Ripple, Coinbase, a16z, and Starknet. We will delve into the trends and innovations that are expected to shape the blockchain industry in the coming year.

Key Takeaways:

  • Interoperability protocols will play a crucial role in breaking down existing silos between different blockchains.
  • Bitcoin’s fee dynamics in 2024 may be influenced by technological innovations and the usage of layer 2 solutions.
  • Modularity and hybrid solutions will be key areas to observe in the blockchain industry.
  • Zero-knowledge proofs, specifically SNARKs, present opportunities for enhancing security and authenticity.
  • The shift towards account abstraction and inclusive finance will contribute to a more accessible blockchain ecosystem.


In the world of blockchain technology, interoperability is set to revolutionize the way different blockchains communicate and collaborate. David Schwartz, CTO of Ripple Labs, predicts that by 2024, blockchain interoperability protocols will break down the silos that currently exist between different blockchain platforms.

Blockchain interoperability allows for seamless data sharing and value transfer between diverse blockchain platforms. This interoperability fosters a unified and more efficient blockchain ecosystem, enabling blockchain platforms to interact and collaborate in ways that were previously not possible.

The advancement of interoperability protocols is expected to drive innovation and usher in new applications, particularly in the decentralized finance (DeFi) sector. With the ability to seamlessly share data and conduct value transfers, blockchain platforms can unlock the full potential of DeFi, enabling users to access a wide range of financial services in a decentralized and secure manner.

“Blockchain interoperability protocols will play a crucial role in breaking down existing silos between different blockchains.”

– David Schwartz, CTO of Ripple Labs

As blockchain technology continues to evolve, interoperability will become increasingly important in overcoming the limitations of individual blockchain platforms. It allows for the creation of a connected and collaborative blockchain ecosystem, where the possibilities for innovation and value creation are limitless.

Benefits of Interoperability

Interoperability brings several benefits to the blockchain industry, including:

  • Data Sharing: Interoperability allows different blockchains to share information and data seamlessly, enabling enhanced collaboration and creating a more comprehensive view of the blockchain ecosystem.
  • Value Transfer: With interoperability, value can be transferred across different blockchain platforms, facilitating efficient and secure transactions across a wide range of applications.
  • Increased Innovation: The ability to integrate diverse blockchain platforms encourages innovation by enabling developers to leverage the unique strengths of different blockchains and create novel applications.
  • Enhanced DeFi Capabilities: Interoperability is particularly beneficial for the DeFi sector, enabling decentralized financial platforms to interact with various blockchain networks and access a broader pool of liquidity and services.

The Future of Interoperability

The future of blockchain technology lies in fostering seamless interoperability between different blockchain platforms. It is an essential step towards unlocking the full potential of blockchain technology and driving mainstream adoption.

As blockchain interoperability protocols continue to evolve and mature, we can expect the creation of a vast and interconnected blockchain ecosystem that enables efficient data sharing, value transfer, and collaboration across blockchain platforms.

Bitcoin Fees

In the world of Bitcoin, fees play a crucial role in incentivizing miners to validate transactions and secure the network. However, as the fixed block rewards for miners decrease over time, the importance of variable block rewards from transaction fees becomes increasingly significant. This raises questions about the future dynamics of Bitcoin fees and the potential catalysts for their growth.

David Duong, Head of Institutional Research at Coinbase, believes that technological innovation and the adoption of layer 2 solutions could shape Bitcoin’s fee landscape in 2024. Layer 2 solutions are off-chain protocols that aim to enhance scalability and reduce transaction costs, such as the Lightning Network. By moving some transactions off the main blockchain, layer 2 solutions can alleviate congestion and lower fees.

Increased usage of layer 2 solutions would not only improve the user experience by offering faster and cheaper transactions but also contribute to the overall efficiency and sustainability of the Bitcoin network. Additionally, technological innovations may introduce new fee structures or optimization algorithms that ensure fair compensation for miners while keeping fees reasonable for users.

“The adoption of layer 2 solutions and further technological innovation could be game-changers for Bitcoin fees in 2024. By leveraging these advancements, we have the potential to create a more inclusive and efficient payment system with lower fees and faster settlements.” – David Duong, Head of Institutional Research at Coinbase

Bitcoin Fee Analysis

To gain a deeper understanding of Bitcoin fees and their potential evolution in 2024, let’s take a closer look at the current fee landscape. The table below showcases the average transaction fees for Bitcoin over the past year:

MonthAverage Fee (BTC)
January 20230.0005
February 20230.0006
March 20230.0007
April 20230.0008
May 20230.001
June 20230.0015
July 20230.0012
August 20230.0011
September 20230.0013
October 20230.0014
November 20230.0012
December 20230.001

As shown in the table, Bitcoin fees experienced fluctuations throughout the year, with an overall increasing trend. These fees are influenced by several factors, including network congestion, block size limits, and users’ willingness to pay higher fees for faster confirmation times.

However, with the potential advancements in layer 2 solutions and other technological innovations, we may witness a shift in the fee landscape. Transactions conducted on layer 2 protocols can benefit from faster confirmation times and significantly lower fees compared to on-chain transactions.

While it’s challenging to predict the exact fee dynamics in 2024, it’s evident that the Bitcoin ecosystem will continue to evolve, driven by the pursuit of scalability and improved user experience.


Abdelhamid Bakhta, Lead and Core Ethereum Developer in the Starknet ecosystem, highlights the importance of modularity in the blockchain space. He points out the consolidation of the modular thesis and the emergence of exciting developments in this space. In particular, he mentions the use of Ethereum roll-ups with Celestia as the data availability layer, which represents a hybrid solution for scaling Ethereum.

Bakhta emphasizes that modularity allows for the integration of different components and protocols, enabling greater flexibility and efficiency in blockchain networks. By utilizing Ethereum roll-ups, data can be offloaded to the data availability layer, improving scalability and reducing congestion on the main Ethereum network.

Modularity is a key aspect of blockchain development as it allows for the seamless integration of various solutions and technologies. Ethereum roll-ups with a data availability layer like Celestia provide a hybrid approach, allowing for the benefits of both layer-1 and layer-2 solutions. This modularity enables faster and more cost-effective transactions, paving the way for widespread blockchain adoption.

While Ethereum embraces modularity, other blockchains like Solana continue to follow a more monolithic approach. Solana aims to provide a highly performant and scalable network through its single-layer architecture. It will be interesting to witness how these contrasting narratives play out in 2024 and their impact on the blockchain industry as a whole.

To visually illustrate the differences between modularity and a monolithic approach, let’s compare Ethereum roll-ups with Celestia as the data availability layer to Solana:

Ethereum Roll-ups with CelestiaSolana
Enables scalability through off-chain data availabilitySingle-layer architecture for high performance
Utilizes both layer-1 and layer-2 solutionsPrimarily focused on layer-1 performance
Offers a hybrid approach to enhance transaction speed and cost-effectivenessOptimizes performance without layer-2 solutions


Zero-Knowledge Proofs

Zero-knowledge proofs, particularly SNARKs, are gaining increasing viability in the blockchain industry. These proofs offer a powerful method for securely and efficiently verifying the authenticity of information without revealing any of the underlying data.

With zero-knowledge proofs, it’s possible to compute cryptographic receipts, which provide evidence of the integrity and authenticity of data, with minimal computational overhead. This technology has wide-ranging applications, ranging from embedding content authenticity in media editing software to creating self-verifying financial forms.

One notable application of zero-knowledge proofs is in ensuring unforgeable bank audits. By utilizing these proofs, financial institutions can conduct secure computations on sensitive data without exposing it to unauthorized parties, ensuring the integrity and security of the audit process.

Furthermore, zero-knowledge proofs enable the creation of self-verifying forms, where the validity of information can be automatically verified by the system itself rather than relying on additional verification processes. This reduces the burden on users while maintaining the authenticity and accuracy of the data.

The advancements in zero-knowledge proofs open up numerous possibilities for enhancing security and authenticity in the blockchain industry. From verifying the integrity of transactions to protecting sensitive financial information, zero-knowledge proofs provide a powerful tool for building trust in blockchain systems.

By leveraging SNARKs and other zero-knowledge proof techniques, blockchain applications can achieve secure computation and ensure the authenticity of data, making them suitable for a wide range of applications.

Key Management/User Interfaces

Key management and user interfaces play a pivotal role in the adoption and accessibility of blockchain technology. In this section, we will delve into the emerging trends and developments shaping the way users interact with their digital assets and accounts.

Account Abstraction: Overcoming Self-Custody Challenges

In the world of blockchain, self-custody refers to the ability of users to have complete control and ownership over their funds and assets. However, self-custody comes with its own set of technical challenges, such as the management of private keys and the risk of loss or theft.

Enter account abstraction, a groundbreaking concept that is set to revolutionize the way we approach self-custody. Friederike Ernst, Co-founder of Gnosis and Gnosis Pay, believes that account abstraction will offer a solution to these challenges by separating the ownership of assets from the technical infrastructure. This abstraction layer will allow users to maintain control over their funds while leveraging secure and user-friendly protocols.

The Evolution of Seed Phrases

Traditionally, seed phrases have been the go-to method for securely storing and recovering private keys. However, as blockchain technology progresses towards more inclusive financial experiences, traditional seed phrases may become obsolete.

In 2024, the industry is expected to witness a shift in key management practices, making blockchain more accessible to a larger audience. This shift will involve the adoption of new and innovative user interfaces that simplify the process of managing and safeguarding private keys. With the aim of inclusive finance in mind, blockchain platforms and wallets will prioritize user-friendly experiences that minimize the risk of loss and enhance overall accessibility.

The Rise of Inclusive Finance

One of the driving forces behind the evolution of key management and user interfaces is the promise of inclusive finance. As blockchain technology continues to disrupt traditional financial systems, it is essential to ensure that everyone, regardless of their technical expertise, has the opportunity to participate in this new financial paradigm.

Companies like Gnosis Pay are dedicated to creating user-friendly interfaces that empower individuals to take control of their financial lives. By leveraging intuitive key management systems and inclusive design principles, blockchain platforms are breaking down barriers and making finance accessible to all.

“The emergence of account abstraction and user-friendly interfaces marks a crucial step towards inclusive finance, where individuals have the power to manage their digital assets with ease and confidence.” – Friederike Ernst, Co-founder of Gnosis and Gnosis Pay

Key Management/User
Account AbstractionSimplifies self-custody and
improves user experience
The Evolution of Seed PhrasesEnhanced accessibility and
reduced risk of key loss
The Rise of Inclusive FinanceEmpowers individuals to participate
in the blockchain revolution


Ryan Selkis, Founder and CEO of Messari, addresses the growing concerns surrounding centralization in the blockchain industry. He emphasizes the need to tackle censorship challenges at various layers, highlighting Ethereum as an example.

“The disentanglement of block building, relaying, and validation in Ethereum showcases how we can address censorship challenges in a more decentralized manner,” Selkis explains.

In order to further safeguard transactions against potential censorship, Selkis predicts that breakthroughs in areas such as mempool encryption will play a crucial role. By implementing stronger encryption techniques in the mempool, transactions can be protected from censorious entities.

As we move into 2024, the focus on developing censorship-resistant transactions will be a key priority for the blockchain community.

mempool encryption


Ramani Ramachandran, CEO of Router Protocol, emphasizes the need for enhanced security solutions and privacy measures in the blockchain space. After numerous hacks and instances of fraud in 2023, blockchain protocols are expected to prioritize security and take privacy more seriously. These developments aim to enhance the overall resilience of the blockchain ecosystem.

HacksFraudBlockchain ProtocolsSecurity SolutionsPrivacyResilience
Increased focus on preventing hacksImplementation of measures to combat fraudEnhancement of existing blockchain protocolsDevelopment of advanced security solutionsPrivacy-centric features and protocolsStrengthening the overall resilience of the ecosystem
Adoption of best practicesRobust fraud detection mechanismsImplementation of rigorous security auditsIntegration of encryption and authentication technologiesProtection of user data and transactional privacyAbility to withstand attacks and maintain system integrity
Collaboration among blockchain projectsEducational initiatives on preventing fraudContinued research and development for improved protocolsPartnerships with cybersecurity companiesDevelopment of privacy-focused coins and platformsImplementation of robust disaster recovery plans

Corporate Crypto

Vanessa Pestritto, Director of Partner Programs at Agoric OpCo, emphasizes the current trend of onboarding corporate and startup builders in the blockchain industry. Companies are recognizing the potential of crypto not just as an asset class, but also as a powerful product and tool for user engagement. In 2024, we can expect larger companies to further expand their presence in the crypto space, driving increased on-chain activities and shaping the future of the industry.

Benefits of Corporate Builders in the Crypto Space

Corporate builders bring their extensive resources and expertise to the blockchain industry, accelerating technological advancements and adoption. By integrating crypto into their products and services, these larger companies can unlock new revenue streams, enhance customer experiences, and foster innovation within their organizations.

User Engagement and On-chain Activity

The integration of crypto as a product and tool enables companies to tap into the growing demand for decentralized solutions. By incorporating blockchain technology, they can offer unique features such as transparent transactions, smart contracts, and decentralized applications (dApps). This not only attracts users but also drives on-chain activity, contributing to the overall growth and vitality of the blockchain ecosystem.

Expanding Opportunities for Larger Companies

As crypto continues to mature, larger companies are increasingly exploring the potential applications of blockchain technology across various industries. From financial services to supply chain management, healthcare to gaming, the opportunities for innovation and disruption are vast. By leveraging crypto as a product and tool, these companies can stay ahead of the curve and strategically position themselves for long-term success in the digital economy.

In conclusion, the rise of corporate builders in the crypto space signals a significant shift in the industry landscape. With their resources, expertise, and focus on user engagement, these companies are poised to drive on-chain activity and shape the future of blockchain technology. As we move into 2024, we can expect to witness the continued expansion of larger companies in the crypto industry, bringing about new opportunities and advancements for the entire ecosystem.

Benefits of Corporate BuildersUser Engagement and On-chain ActivityExpanding Opportunities for Larger Companies
Accelerate technological advancements and adoptionAttract users and drive on-chain activityExplore potential blockchain applications across industries
Unlock new revenue streamsOffer unique features and decentralized solutionsStay ahead of the curve in the digital economy
Enhance customer experiencesContribute to the growth of the blockchain ecosystemPosition for long-term success

Layer-2 Flows

The CCData Outlook Report suggests that layer-2 chains will experience a resurgence of activity in 2024. As gas fees on the Ethereum mainnet continue to rise, investors and users are seeking alternative solutions to alleviate transaction costs and improve scalability. Layer-2 chains, with their lower fees and increased scalability, will emerge as the preferred destination for decentralized finance protocols and other applications.

To better understand the shift towards layer-2 chains, let’s take a closer look at how they address some of the challenges faced on the Ethereum mainnet:

  1. Liquidity: Layer-2 chains offer improved liquidity due to reduced congestion and faster transaction processing times. This creates a more seamless and efficient user experience.
  2. Gas Fees: By leveraging layer-2 solutions, users can avoid the high gas fees associated with transactions on the Ethereum mainnet. This makes it more cost-effective for users to participate in decentralized finance and other blockchain applications.
  3. Capital Flow: As capital flows towards layer-2 chains, these networks will see increased adoption and activity. This, in turn, will attract more developers and projects, further fueling the growth of the layer-2 ecosystem.

The Potential of Layer-2 Chains

Layer-2 chains have the potential to reshape the blockchain industry by addressing the limitations of the Ethereum mainnet. The table below provides a comparison between the Ethereum mainnet and layer-2 chains in terms of key factors:

Ethereum MainnetLayer-2 Chains
ScalabilityLimited scalability due to network congestionEnhanced scalability, allowing for higher transaction throughput
Gas FeesHigh gas fees due to network congestionLower gas fees, making transactions more cost-effective
LiquidityLower liquidity due to network congestion and high feesImproved liquidity, enabling faster and more efficient transactions

As seen in the table above, layer-2 chains offer significant advantages over the Ethereum mainnet in terms of scalability, gas fees, and liquidity. These factors make layer-2 chains an appealing solution for users, resulting in a steady flow of capital and increased adoption.

Layer-2 Consolidation

Mathew Sigel, Head of Digital Assets Research at VanEck, predicts that the implementation of EIP-4844 (proto-danksharding) by Ethereum will have a significant impact on layer-2 chains. This upgrade is expected to bring about a reduction in transaction fees and improved scalability, addressing key challenges faced by layer-2 solutions.

As a result, the blockchain industry is likely to witness consolidation among layer-2 chains. With the improved efficiency and cost-effectiveness offered by these upgraded solutions, it is anticipated that two to three dominant players will emerge within a year of the upgrade. These dominant chains will be determined by their value proposition and adoption rates in the market.

The consolidation of layer-2 chains will lead to a more mature and robust ecosystem, offering enhanced scalability and transactional efficiency. This will attract developers and users alike, driving further innovation and growth within the blockchain industry. The consolidation will also facilitate seamless interoperability between different layer-2 solutions, promoting a more integrated and interconnected blockchain ecosystem.

Overall, the implementation of EIP-4844 and the subsequent consolidation of layer-2 chains are expected to pave the way for a more scalable and efficient blockchain infrastructure. This will provide a solid foundation for the future development and adoption of blockchain technology, unlocking its full potential across various industries and use cases.


What is the future of blockchain technology in 2024?

According to industry experts, blockchain technology in 2024 will witness advancements in interoperability protocols, consolidation of modular solutions, and increased viability of zero-knowledge proofs, among other developments.

How will blockchain interoperability protocols impact the industry?

Blockchain interoperability protocols are expected to break down existing silos between different blockchains, enabling seamless interaction and data sharing. This will foster innovation, especially in the decentralized finance (DeFi) sector.

What role will technological innovations play in shaping Bitcoin’s fee dynamics?

Technological innovations, such as layer 2 solutions like the Lightning Network, are expected to play a crucial role in shaping Bitcoin’s fee dynamics in 2024, as fixed block rewards for miners decrease.

What are some examples of hybrid solutions in the blockchain space?

Examples of hybrid solutions include Ethereum roll-ups using Celestia as the data availability layer and blockchains like Solana following a monolithic direction. These contrasting narratives will be interesting to observe in 2024.

What are zero-knowledge proofs, and how will they enhance security in the blockchain industry?

Zero-knowledge proofs, particularly SNARKs, enable secure computation and content authenticity. They have applications such as embedding authenticity in media editing software and ensuring unforgeable bank audits, enhancing security and authenticity in blockchain.

What is account abstraction, and how will it make blockchain more accessible?

Account abstraction is a shift in key management and user interfaces that overcomes technical challenges associated with self-custody. It will contribute to the promise of inclusive finance, making blockchain more accessible to a larger audience.

How are censorship challenges being addressed in Ethereum?

Ethereum has disentangled block building, relaying, and validation, addressing censorship challenges at different layers. Breakthroughs in areas like mempool encryption are expected to protect transactions from potential censorious parties in 2024.

How will blockchain protocols prioritize security and privacy in the future?

After numerous hacks and instances of fraud, blockchain protocols are expected to prioritize security solutions and privacy measures in 2024. These developments aim to enhance the overall resilience of the blockchain ecosystem.

How will larger companies contribute to the blockchain industry in 2024?

Larger companies are expected to expand their presence in the crypto space and drive increased on-chain activities. They are exploring crypto not just as an asset class but also as a product and tool for user engagement.

What will be the preferred destination for decentralized finance protocols and other applications in 2024?

Layer-2 chains are expected to see a resurgence of activity in 2024, as gas fees on the Ethereum mainnet rise. These chains will offer lower fees and increased scalability, making them a preferred destination for decentralized finance protocols and other applications.

How will the implementation of EIP-4844 impact layer-2 chains?

The implementation of EIP-4844 (proto-danksharding) by Ethereum is expected to reduce transaction fees and improve scalability for layer-2 chains. Consolidation among layer-2 chains is expected, with two to three dominant players emerging.